逻辑主语的准确性

所谓的逻辑主语就是一些非谓语动词的真正主语。这些非谓语动词,譬如说动名词、不定式,还有现在分词和过去分词,很多同学都在用,但是很多时候忘记真正的主语。

1 不定式to do, in order to do something  (这些不定式的逻辑主语是主句的主语)

 

In order to attract visitors, historic buildings should be maintained.

 

错误的原因:历史建筑是没有生命的,不可能有“in order to”

正确的句子:In order to attract visitors, city councils should maintain historic buildings. 

 

2 when, while, before, after 等连词引导的现在分词或者动名词 (这些分词或者动名词的逻辑主语也是主句的主语)

 

例句:When communicating with others, patience is important.

错误的原因:communicating这个分词的主语是人,不可能是patient

正确的句子:when communicating with others, one should show patience.

 

3 by+doing  (这些动名词的逻辑主语是主句的主语)

 

例句:By setting rules, children can reduce behavioural problems.

错误的原因:setting rules的主语不是children

正确的句子:By setting rules, schools can reduce behavioural problems.

 

4 Compared with   (这些过去分词的逻辑主语是主句的主语)

例句:Compared with Japan, the crime rate in the US was high.

错误的原因:分词compare的主语应该是the US 而不是the crime rate

正确的句子:Compared with Japan, the US had a higher crime rate.

事实上原句是: when the US is compared with Japan, the US had a high crime rate.

 

5 enable somebody to do something   (这些不定式的逻辑主语是enable后面那个名词)

例句:Education has enabled young people to increase knowledge and  reduce poverty.

错误的原因:后面的reduce poverty逻辑主语是young people,而不是education young people不会reduce poverty.

正确的句子:Education has reduced poverty because it enables young people to increase knowledge and find work.

 

6 make it possible/difficult for somebody to do something (这些不定式的逻辑主语是for后面那个名词)

例句:Modern farming techniques have made it possible for children to deal with hunger.

错误的原因:后面to deal with的逻辑主语不是farming techniques, 而是children, children不可能deal with hunger

正确的句子:Modern farming techniques have made it possible for many countries to deal with hunger.

 

7 分词结构 (很多时候,句子末尾的现在分词的逻辑主语是前面主句的主语)

例句:Many companies have required employees to work overtime, performing all tasks before going home.

错误的原因:主句的主语many companies不是perform的主语,应该要想办法把主语改成employees

正确的句子:Employees are required to work overtime in many companies, performing all tasks before going home.

 


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